Mediante doing so I will keep esatto the order indicated above, and discuss how such principalities are sicuro be ruled and preserved
I will leave out all conciliabule on republics, inasmuch as per another place I have written of them at length, and will address myself only esatto principalities.
I say at once there are fewer difficulties con holding hereditary states, and those long accustomed onesto the family of their prince, than new ones; for it is sufficient only not preciso transgress the customs of his ancestors, and esatto deal prudently with circumstances as they arise, for a prince of average powers to maintain himself con his state, unless he be deprived of it by some extraordinary and creuse force; and if he should be so deprived of it, whenever anything sinister happens to the usurper, he will regain it.
We have sopra Italy, for example, the Duke of Ferrara, who could not have withstood the attacks of the Venetians per ’84, nor those of Pope Julius mediante ’10, unless he had been long established mediante his dominions. For the hereditary prince has less cause and less necessity onesto offend; hence it happens that he will be more loved; and unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that his subjects will be naturally well disposed towards him; and con the antiquity and duration of his rule the memories and motives that make for change are lost, for one change always leaves the toothing for another.
CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES
And firstly, if it be not entirely new, but is, as it were, a member of verso state which, taken collectively, may be called composite, the changes arise chiefly from an inherent difficulty which there is sopra all new principalities; for men change their rulers willingly, hoping sicuro better themselves, and this hope induces them preciso take up arms against him who rules: wherein they are deceived, because they afterwards find by experience they have gone from bad preciso worse. This follows also on another natural and common necessity, which always causes per new prince onesto burden those who have submitted preciso him with his soldiery and with infinite other hardships which he must put upon his new acquisition.
Per this way you have enemies per all those whom you have injured in seizing that principality, and you are not able to keep those friends who put you there because of your not being able puro satisfy them in the way they expected, and you cannot take strong measures against them, feeling bound esatto them. For, although one may be very strong mediante armed forces, yet sopra entering per province one has always need of the goodwill of the natives.
For these reasons Louis the Twelfth, King of France, quickly occupied Milan, and as quickly lost it; and to turn him out the first time it only needed Lodovico’s own forces; because those who had opened the gates sicuro him, finding themselves deceived mediante their hopes of future benefit, would not endure the ill-treatment of the new prince. It is very true that, after acquiring rebellious provinces per second time, they are not so lightly lost afterwards, because the prince, with little reluctance, takes the opportunity of the rebellion esatto punish the delinquents, esatto clear out the suspects, and puro strengthen himself con the weakest places. Thus to mobili bumble cause France onesto lose Milan the first time it was enough for the Duke Lodovico preciso raise insurrections on the borders; but sicuro cause him puro lose it per second time it was necessary onesto bring the whole world against him, and that his armies should be defeated and driven out of Italy; which followed from the causes above mentioned.