The aggregate the Romans used included pieces of rock, ceramic tiles, and bricks from older, demolished buildings

The aggregate the Romans used included pieces of rock, ceramic tiles, and bricks from older, demolished buildings

The aggregate the Romans used included pieces of rock, ceramic tiles, and bricks from older, demolished buildings

A very early style of Roman architecture, the « opus quadratum » dates back to the time of the ancient Etruscans, before the beginning of the Roman Republic

Like any other concrete, Roman concrete consists of aggregate and mortar. A binder, such as gypsum, was used. What other type of binder was also used? Be careful, though. You don’t want to put this in your mojito!

After being mixed with tazza, the mortar, which consisted of gypsum or lime, would harden over time. Con some areas pozzolana, also called pit sand, was used.

It was common mediante ancient times for prominent Romans esatto construct tombs along the Appian Way. The original covering of the tomb con the picture has been removed puro esibizione the bare concrete.

Placed at verso forty-five degree angle, the diamond-shaped bricks were normally made of tuff or tufa, which is a rock made from consolidated volcanic ash pushed out during a volcanic eruption. « Opus » (term for verso piece of art) and « reticulatum » (net-like), translates preciso net-work; the design was named because the Romans believed the brickwork resembled a net. This design was prevalent con the first century BC.

Latin for « brickwork », « opus latericium » was the design used during the imperial eta sopra Rome. Per Roman architect, Vitruvius, used this term for structures that were built with unfired bricks.

The example of « opus reticulatum » per the picture comes from per wall con the city of Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Mt

A new Appian Way was constructed durante 1784 that was parallel with the old one; now the older section of road that dates back to Roman times is called the « Inizio Appia Antic ». The building is an example of verso tomb, built along the old stretch of the road, which dates back onesto ancient Rome.

Generally, this decorative pattern was used sopra the construction of pavement, but it was also used as per pattern on walls and as firebacks in hearths. This design was also used during the Middle Ages, as evidenced at Usk Castle sopra Wales, and into the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi used this pattern mediante constructing the dome of the Cathedral of Florence.

Believed to be the world’s oldest acquisti mall, Trajan’s Market was constructed mediante the Roman Forum sopra the 100s AD. The multi-level structure included shops, offices, and even a library! The herringbone pattern was used sicuro pave the floor of the market.

One of the earliest Roman architectural styles, « opus incertum » first utilized irregularly-shaped rocks and careful placement sicuro make the concrete work aspetto as plain as possible. Later the amount of concrete used was reduced, and more uniform stones were selected. This made the exterior look even plainer.

Durante ancient times the Italian town of Terracina was strategically located for the defense of the city of Rome. The riunione of the city has a massive terrace, on which stood The Temple of Jupiter Anxur. Built during the first century BC, the temple was dedicated to Jupiter as per young man.

Also called « opus compositum », « opus mixtum », or « mixed sistema », combines many different styles. Per very popular method of brickwork used during the time of Emperor Hadrian, it usually mixes « opus reticulatum » and « opus latericium » or « opus vittatum » and « opus testaceum ».

The design con the picture is from the remains of per Roman amphitheatre con Naples. Ampitheatres were oval-shaped and generally used for gladiator fights, executions, or animals fights.

« Opus sectile » was verso technique used on floors or walls that employed the use of materials that were cut and inlaid. Commonly used materials included glass, marble and mother of pearl. The inlaid pieces used for « opus sectile » are much larger than the ones used for the technique called « tessellated mosaic ». Other civilizations, such as Egypt, also used this technique.

The design of the « opus sectile » was found on the floor of the Basilica of Junius Bassus. Built on the Esquiline Hill, the oratorio is considered onesto be the source of some of the best examples of this type of work.

The « opus africanum » technique was also used con Carthaginian architecture, and is common sopra North Africa. It has also been found on buildings con Sicily and southern Italy.

Durante the picture, the metroon, any building dedicated esatto verso mother goddess, was built for Cybele, who was known con Rome as the « Magna Mater ». The Romans officially adopted her cult after much discussion during the Second Punic War, which was fought against Carthage sopra Africa. Cybele became Rome’s « Great Mother » until Christianity overtook the pagan religion.

At that time mortar was not used and the blocks were uneven. The Greeks altered the « Etruscan Way », using stretchers, or long blocks and headers, which turned the blocks width-wise. Once the Romans invented concrete, walls mediante this style were common.

Mediante architecture, having per coffered dome, which is also called a lacunar ceiling, meant that it was made of sunken panels, done sopra some type of geometric shape. The panels sopra the Tempio dome are square. This method was employed to try and lighten some of the weight that the dome had sicuro carry, while keeping the integrity of the framework.

First commissioned during the reign of Augustus, and destroyed by fire sopra 80 AD, the Pantheon was rebuilt sopra 126 AD during the reign of Hadrian. As its name implies, the Tempio was built as a temple for all the gods. Since Roman times it has been used as a Christian church as well as per tomb.

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